How to get methane?
Methane is the simplest representative of saturated hydrocarbons. It burns well with the release of large amounts of heat, so it is widely used by industry.
How to get methane in industry
Methane is a component of natural gas and gas associated with oil fields. Therefore, the industry gets methane from these gases.
How to get methane at home
Methane has another name - swamp gas. In order to get it at home, you should take some soil from the bottom of the swamp and place it in a jar, filling it with water. The jar is sealed tightly and placed in a dark and warm place. After a few days you will notice the appearance of small gas bubbles on the surface of the water. The resulting methane can be removed from the cans through the suction tube.
How to get methane in the laboratory
Methane can be obtained in laboratory conditions in several ways:
- Passing a mixture of hydrogen sulphide and carbon disulfide through a tube, at the bottom of which is hot copper: CS2+ 2H2S + 8Cu = CH4+ Cu2S. It was the very first way to produce methane. It was later found out that methane can be obtained by heating a mixture of hydrogen and carbon in the presence of a nickel catalyst to 475 degrees. Without using a catalyst to heat the mixture accounts for up to 1200 degrees. C + 2H2= CH4
- Currently, methane is obtained by heating a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium acetate: CH3СООNa + NaOH = Na2CO3+ CH4.
- Pure methane can be obtained by the reaction of aluminum carbide and water: Al4C3+ 12H2O = 4 Al (OH)3+ 3CH4
- Synthesis of methane can be conducted on the basis of a compound of hydrogen and carbon monoxide: CO + 3H2= CH4+ H2O
How to get acetylene from methane
Methane acetylene can be obtained by heating the latter to a temperature of one and a half thousand degrees:
2 CH4> C2H2+ H2
How to get methanol from methane
To obtain methanol from methane, several chemical reactions should be carried out. First there is a reaction between chlorine and methane. This reaction takes place only in the light, because It is launched by photons of light. In the course of this reaction, trichloromethane and hydrochloric acid: CH are formed.4+ Cl2> CH3Cl + HCl. Then carry out the reaction between the obtained trichloromethane and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. This results in methanol and sodium chloride: CH3Cl + NaOH> NaCl + CH3OH
How to get aniline from methane
Obtain aniline from methane, perhaps having done only a whole chain of reactions, which schematically looks like this: CH4> C2H2> C6H6> C6H5NO2> C6H5NH2.
First, methane is heated to 1500 degrees, resulting in the formation of acetylene. Then benzene is obtained from acetylene using the Zelinsky reaction. To do this, acetylene is passed through a tube heated to 600 degrees, half filled with activated carbon: 3C2H2= C6H6
From benzene get nitrobenzene: C6H6+ HNO3= C6H5NO2+ N2O, which is a feedstock for aniline production. This process follows the Zinin reaction:
FROM6H5NO2+ 3 (NH4)2S = C6H5NH2+ 6NH3+ 3S + 2H2O.
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