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What is tachycardia?

There are many different diseases associated with heart rhythm disorders. Some of them are accompanied by an acceleration of the heartbeat, called tachycardia.In this article we will look at what tachycardia is and how to get rid of it.

Definition

Tachycardia is a condition in which the patient has a rapid heartbeat. Tachycardia itself is not a disease, but accompanies the development of other heart ailments. Moreover, tachycardia can be quite normal and the natural state of the cardiovascular system at the time of playing sports or during heavy physical exertion.

Species

Based on the causes of heart rhythm disturbances, two main types of tachycardia can be distinguished:

  • Physiological tachycardia, which appears under the influence of external factors such as fear, anxiety, physical exertion, etc., and disappears immediately after the elimination of the cause of its occurrence.
  • Pathological tachycardia, which accompanies the development of heart disease and manifests itself in any condition, including in a state of complete rest.

Which heart rate is normal for a patient usually depends on his age and level of physical activity. So, for newborns, the pulse should not exceed 180 beats per minute. In adolescents, tachycardia is diagnosed when the heart rate begins to exceed 90 beats, but during exercise, the pulse rate of 200 beats per minute is considered normal for them.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of heart disease, as a rule, is carried out by means of an electrocardiogram. If ventricular tachycardia is suspected, additional daily ECG monitoring or Holter monitoring is prescribed. As a primary diagnosis, the doctor may conduct auscultation (listening) of the heart.

Types of tachycardia

Sinus tachycardia

It may appear as a result of an increase in body temperature, due to emotional over-stimulation, or due to increased physical exertion and is completely harmless to health. The name of this type of tachycardia was given sinus nodes, in which there is a disturbance of the heartbeat. In rare cases, sinus tachycardia accompanies diseases such as anemia or increased activity of the thyroid gland.

Treatment

No such treatment requires such tachycardia. The work of the heart is normalized immediately after the removal of the cause of the effect.

Supraventricular tachycardia

Another common type of tachycardia is supraventricular or supraventricular tachycardia. It is also called paroxysmal atrial tachycardia or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. With this type of tachycardia, an abnormal heart rhythm is observed in the upper (atrium) and lower (ventricle) heart chambers, as well as in the heart nodules.

Supraventricular tachycardia contributes to the appearance of hypodynamic malfunction of the heart (arterial hypotension, loss of consciousness), and also develops myocardial ischemia.

Treatment

Treatment of this type of tachycardia consists of two stages: stopping the current episode of cardiac arrhythmia and preventing relapse. Among the methods to combat tachycardia, the most effective are the introduction of intravenous drugs to control heart rhythm. Another method of treating tachycardia is electropulse therapy or cardioversion - a method thatin which by means of a defibrillator or through a special catheter, the chaotically contracting muscle fibers of the heart are brought to a normal working rhythm.

Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation is accompanied by an accelerated heartbeat in the lower heart chamber (ventricle). This pathology is quite rare, but serious. As a rule, such tachycardia accompanies serious heart diseases requiring surgical intervention, for example, penetrating myocardial infarction.

Treatment

Treatment of ventricular tachycardia can be carried out with the use of drugs aimed at eliminating the cause of tachycardia, by radiofrequency ablation or surgically.

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