What science studies consciousness
The French philosopher Edmund Husserl in the early 20th century creates a phenomenology, a discipline aimed at studying the nature and properties of consciousness. Phenomenology means “the doctrine of phenomena,” that is, phenomena given to man in sensual contemplation. Phenomenology is aimed at a free description of the experience of the cognizing consciousness that exists in the world of phenomena, and the selection of its essential features.
Refusing to build deductive systems and criticizing naturalism and psychologism in the development of consciousness, phenomenology focuses on the appeal to the primary experience of the cognitive consciousness.
Thus, direct contemplation and phenomenological reduction, which are associated with the liberation of consciousness from the naturalistic attitude, become the basic methods of phenomenology.
Phenomenological science helps to comprehend the essence of things, not facts. So, the phenomenologist is not interested in this or that moral norm, he is interested in why she is the norm.
Making a reduction, phenomenology comes to the central property of consciousness - intentionality. Intentionality is a property of the orientation of consciousness on an object. The human consciousness is always directed at something, that is, it is intentional.
Intentional analysis involves the disclosure of relevance, in which objects are constructed as semantic unity. Husserl comes to the conclusion that the very existence of the object depends on its importance for consciousness. Thus, phenomenology sets itself the task of systematically studying the types of intentional experiences, as well as the reduction of their structures to primary intentions.
Principles of phenomenology
The essence of the phenomenological attitude is that the “I” reaches the last point of view conceivable for experience. Here the “I” becomes the disinterested contemplator of himself, his natural-worldly part of the transcendental “I”. In other words, phenomenology comes to the concept of "pure consciousness".
So, the basic principles of phenomenology can be formulated as follows:
- pure consciousness, free from psychophysical experiences, is the transcendental area in which the objectivity of the world is constituted;
- every object exists for pure consciousness as a phenomenon constituted by it;
- all experiences of pure consciousness have a reflexive component;
- pure consciousness is transparent, clear and obvious for your own reflection.
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